Definition: A somewhat arbitrarily defined small group of determiners that are placed before nouns. Articles standing alone have little meaning; when used with a noun they can indicate whether the noun refers to a specific one or ones of its type or whether it refers to its type in general. In Spanish, the articles also specify the noun’s gender.In English, the articles are “a,” “an” and “the.” Some grammarians also classify “some” as an article in some usages.

In Spanish, the articles are ununaunosunasellalos and las.

Articles can be classified as definite or indefinite. The definite articles are “the” in English and ella,los and las in Spanish. The indefinite articles are “a” and “an” in English (also “some” if that word is so classified) and ununaunos and unas in Spanish.

Note that Spanish and English have different grammatical rules concerning when articles are needed or should be omitted.

Also Known As: Artículo in Spanish.

Boldfaced words are articles: The boy bought a book. (El chico compró un libro.The doctor is eating an apple. (La doctora come una manzana.)

Textile Design

Textile Designing – A Brief Overview

Textile DesigningTextile as a material of daily use has been there for ages now and as an industry, it is one of the promising industries. Textile Industry will always be there as clothes are one of the basic human necessities. For making textile, there is always the need of textile designers who design the textiles. Textile design is basically the process of creating designs for knitted, woven or printed fabrics.

What is Textile Designing Textile Designs
Fabrics can be made by weaving and knitting and can be given basic decoration through printing. Textile designing is a technical process including different methods for production of textile. It includes both- surface design and structural design of a textile. Textile designer must have knowledge of yarn making, weaving, knitting, dyeing, finishing processes, and also knowledge about different types of looms, knitting machines, and printing processes. The following basic activities can be included in textile designing.

  • Conceptualizing new and innovative designs.
  • Making sets of design samples.
  • Carrying on experiments with color, fabric and texture.
  • Designing fabrics according to the emerging fashion trends.

Basic Process of Textile Designing
Textile Designing ProcessA sketch of the finished design envisioned by the textile designer is made for both woven and printed textiles. The designer’s deep understanding of the technical aspects of production and the properties of fibersyarns, and textile dyes help him in visualizing the end product. Traditionally, drawings of woven textile patterns were made onto special graph paper called point papers. These drawings were used by the weavers for setting up their looms for producing the fabric. However, today, most of the professional textile designers use some form of computer-aided design software for the purpose.

How CAD is used in Textile Designing
CAD in Textile Designing The CAD/CAM technology facilitates easy creation of virtually all types of fabric weave and design, helps simulate the created weave/design into the virtual fabric in different color combinations long before the actual fabric is manufactured. If the designer is satisfied with his virtual creation then the software again provides the required parameters in various formats as per his need to weave the created design into actual fabric form. The state-of-the-art technology of computer-aided design is being adopted by almost every powerloom industry. The handloom sector has also started the application of this modern designing technology, though on a very small scale as on date. The CAD solution for textile designing and manufacturing has many application areas ranging from dobby, jacquard and screen printing industries to blankets,carpets, and knitting industries among many others. It increases productivity and also adds value to the product for meeting the rapid changing demands of the consumers for fashionable designs.

Textile Designers 
Textile DesignerThe main center of functioning in the whole process of textile designing is the textile designer. Textile designers are the trained professionals having sound technical knowledge of each and every aspect of fabric manufacturing. They have deep understanding of as basic a material as fiber to as modern a process as CAD/CAM technology. In fact, their learning is a continuous process as they have to keep themselves updated about any new techniques or developments in the field of textile designing. Not only this, they have to keep tract of the prevailing fashion trends as well as social, cultural and historical perspectives of the region for which they create textile designs.

Nature and Scope of the Work of Textile Designers
Textile ManufacturingThere are two basic areas in textile designing:

Any textile designer can work for creating textile to be used in one or both of the above categories. They have to make creative, stylish and contemporary designs as per the market demands. Although it seems to be quite simple, the work of textile designers is a little complex as they have to coordinate different facets of textile manufacturing with market demands as well as fashion trends of the day. As such, this profession calls for a set of skills that every designer should possess. These skills can be listed as follows:

  • Creativity
  • Technical knowledge
  • Commercial awareness of textile industry
  • Research and data handling capacity
  • Critical analysis and interpretation of materials

Most of the skills are acquired by the textile designers in the university or institute from where they learn textile designing. In these institutions, they produce samples, fabric lengths and one-off pieces, learning to critically and aesthetically evaluate their own work. This is aided by their study of social, environmental, ethical and economic issues and influences they have on textile design. In most of the institutes, they get the opportunity to work on live projects with established businesses. Under these projects, they have to design textile according to the client’s specifications. It helps in increasing their understanding of the industry and its requirements.

Working Options of Textile Designers 
Textile Designers MakerThe textile designers are mostly employed by the design studios. Alternatively, they provide one of the most basic textile services i.e. textile designing to the textile manufacturers through freelance work. They sometimes establish their own workshop as a designer-maker producing textile designs for sale through galleries or exhibitions. The working options of textile designers include:

  • Freelance designer
  • In-house designer
  • Stylist
  • Color Specialists
  • Curator
  • Printing Supervisors/ Managers
pho·tog·ra·phy http://img.tfd.com/m/sound.swf (f-tgr-f)
1. The art or process of producing images of objects on photosensitive surfaces.
2. The art, practice, or occupation of taking and printing photographs.
3. A body of photographs.

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

photography [fəˈtɒgrəfɪ]

1. (Miscellaneous Technologies / Photography) the process of recording images on sensitized material by the action of light, X-rays, etc., and the chemical processing of this material to produce a print, slide, or cine film
2. (Miscellaneous Technologies / Photography) the art, practice, or occupation of taking and printing photographs, making cine films, etc.

Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003


See also artfilms
1. the measurement of the intensity of radiation with a recording actinometer, usually by the photochemical effect.
2. the calculation of suitable exposure times in photography through the use of a recording actinometer. — actinographic, adj.
a form of photography used to record astronomical phenomena.
1. a photographic process in which pictures are produced in one color or shades of one color by the use of a carbon pigment. Also called autotypy.
2. the picture so created.
the art of making colored photographs.
the art or principles of making motion pictures. — cinematic, adj.
the art or technique of motion-picture photography. — cinematographer, cinematographist, n. — cinematographic, adj.
1. a photographic plate made with a gelatin film, capable of highly detailed reproductions.
2. the process of making such a plate.
3. the picture made with such a plate.
a blueprint.
an obsolete form of photography in which images were produced on chemically treated plates of metal or glass. — daguerreotypic, daguerreotypical, adj. — daguerreotypist, n.
an optical device for measuring the density of a photographic negative.
an apparatus for electrically transmitting pictures. — electrograph, n. — electrographic, adj.
1. an early photographic process in which a positive image was taken directly on a thin plate of sensitized iron or tin.
2. the picture produced by this method. Also called stannotype, tintype.
a form of photography for examining the interior of the stomach by introducing a small camera into it.
the art or process of producing natural color photographic prints; color photography. — heliochrome, n. — heliochromic, adj.
the practice of making phototypes.
the process of making pictures by printing directly from gelatin film that has been exposed under a negative and fixed with chrome alum.
a technique for producing a three-dimensional photographic representation, recorded on film by a reflected laser beam of a subject illuminated by part of the same laser beam.
an optical device similar to a stereoscope in which a photograph is greatly magnified and the effect of perspective is deepened.
an instrument for recording and reproducing the illusion of motion by means of a series of photographs.
an instrument for photographing clouds.
the quality or condition of being sensitive to all colors, as certain types of photographic film. — panchromatic, adj.
the use of photography as an aid to book description.
a biography related mostly or entirely through photographs.
the process or production of color photographs; color photography. Cf. heliochromy.
1. a camera for recording motion by a series of photographs taken at brief intervals.
2. the photograph so produced.
3. a camera that records the exact time of the event it is photographing by exposing a moving sensitized plate to the tracing of a thin beam of light synchronized with the event.
a photoplay or dramatic narrative illustrated with or related through photographs.
photogravure or the process of engraving by means of photography. — photoglyphic, adj.
the use of photography for surveying or map-making. Cf. phototopography.
1. a form of photoengraving in which the photograph is reproduced on an intaglio surface and then transferred to paper.
2. the photograph produced by this process.
a form of journalism in which photographs play a more important part than written copy. — photojournalist, n.
the process of making lithographs produced by photoengraving. Cf. photogravure. — photolithographer, n. — photolithographic, adj.
the process of taking photographs through a microscope. Also called photomicroscopy. — photomicrograph, n.
surveying or map-making by means of photography. Cf. photogrammetry. — phototopographic, phototopographical, adj.
the art or technique of making photographic plates. — phototypic, adj.
1. a photographic process in which a platinum salt is used in place of the more usual silver salts to produce a more permanent print.
2. a photographic print so made.
a photograph produced on film by the radioactive rays from the object being photographed. Also called autoradiograph. — radioautographic, adj. — radioautography, n.
the technique of producing images on photographic film by the action of x rays or other radioactive materials. Also called scotography. — radiograph, n.
the process or technique of transmitting and receiving photographs by radio.
a collective term for all kinds of processes used for the facsimile reproduction of documents or books.
x-ray photography.
radiography. See also radiation. — scotograph, n.
a device for determining the sensitivity of film. — sensitometiy, n. — sensitometric, adj.
the technique of using a spectrograph, an optical device for breaking light down into a spectrum and recording the results photographically. — spectrographic, adj.
a photograph of the sun made using monochromatic light.
1. the art or process of photographing distant objects by using a telephoto lens or a telescope with a camera.
2. electrography. — telephotographic, adj.
an apparatus combining a telescope and the camera lucida, used for producing images of distant objects on a screen.
the motion-picture photography of a slow and continuous process, as the sprouting of a seed, especially by exposing one frame at a time at regular intervals.
x-ray photography of a thin cross section of tissue.
a stereoscopic process involving two superimposed images polarized at 90° to each other and viewed through polarizing glasses for a three-dimensional effect. — vectograph, n. — vectographic, adj.
1. an early photographic process in which a relief image on gelatin is used to produce an intaglio impression on a lead or other soft metal plate from which prints are then made in a press.
2. the picture produced by this process.

-Ologies & -Isms. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

ThesaurusLegend:  Synonyms Related Words Antonyms
Noun 1. photographyphotography – the act of taking and printing photographs
posingsitting – (photography) the act of assuming a certain position (as for a photograph or portrait); “he wanted his portrait painted but couldn’t spare time for the sitting”
intensification – the act of increasing the contrast of (a photographic film)
photography – the occupation of taking and printing photographs or making movies
pictorial representationpicturing – visual representation as by photography or painting
radiography – photography that uses other kinds of radiation than visible light
xerography – forming an image by the action of light on a specially coated charged plate; the latent image is developed with powders that adhere only to electrically charged areas; “edge enhancement is intrinsic in xerography”
telephotography – photography using a telephoto lens
exposure – the act of exposing film to light
cinematographyfilmingmotion-picture photography – the act of making a film
contrast – the range of optical density and tone on a photographic negative or print (or the extent to which adjacent areas on a television screen differ in brightness)
inscriptiondedication – a short message (as in a book or musical work or on a photograph) dedicating it to someone or something
record – anything (such as a document or a phonograph record or a photograph) providing permanent evidence of or information about past events; “the film provided a valuable record of stage techniques”
processor – someone who processes things (foods or photographs or applicants etc.)
reticulation – (photography) the formation of a network of cracks or wrinkles in a photographic emulsion
underdevelopment – (photography) inadequate processing of film resulting in inadequate contrast
touch upretouch – alter so as to produce a more desirable appearance; “This photograph has been retouched!”
blow upenlargemagnify – make large; “blow up an image”
handcolorhandcolour – color by hand; “Some old photographs are handcolored”
sensitisesensitize – make (a material) sensitive to light, often of a particular colour, by coating it with a photographic emulsion; “sensitize the photographic film”
photographshootsnap – record on photographic film; “I photographed the scene of the accident”; “She snapped a picture of the President”
retake – photograph again; “Please retake that scene”
x-ray – take an x-ray of something or somebody; “The doctor x-rayed my chest”
block outmask – shield from light
overexpose – expose excessively; “As a child, I was overexposed to French movies”
underexpose – expose insufficiently; “The child was underexposed to language”
expose – expose to light, of photographic film
overexpose – expose to too much light; “the photographic film was overexposed and there is no image”
solarisesolarize – overexpose to sunlight; “be careful not to solarize the photographic film”
solarisesolarize – become overexposed; “The film solarized”
underexpose – expose to too little light; “The film is underexposed, so the image is very dark”
solarisesolarize – reverse some of the tones of (a negative or print) and introduce pronounced outlines of highlights, by exposing it briefly to light, then washing and redeveloping it
develop – make visible by means of chemical solutions; “Please develop this roll of film for me”
underdevelop – process (a film or photographic plate) less than the required time or in an ineffective solution or at an insufficiently high temperature; “These photos are underdeveloped”
colorcolour – having or capable of producing colors; “color film”; “he rented a color television”; “marvelous color illustrations”
black and whiteblack-and-white – not having or not capable of producing colors; “black-and-white film”; “a black-and-white TV”; “the movie was in black and white”
flat – lacking contrast or shading between tones
contrasty – having sharp differences between black and white

2.photography – the process of producing images of objects on photosensitive surfaces

physical processprocess – a sustained phenomenon or one marked by gradual changes through a series of states; “events now in process”; “the process of calcification begins later for boys than for girls”
anaglyphy – the process of producing pictures in contrasting colors that appear three-dimensional when superimposed and viewed through spectacles with one red and one green lens
autotypeautotypy – process for producing permanent prints in a carbon pigment
digital photography – a photographic method that stores the image digitally for later reproduction
dry platedry plate process – a former photographic method that used a glass plate coated with a light-sensitive gelatinous emulsion
photomechanicsphotoplate making – the process whereby printing surfaces (plates or cylinders) are produced by photographic methods; “photomechanics revolutionized the practice of printing”
powder methodpowder photographypowder technique – a process for identifying minerals or crystals; a small rod is coated with a powdered form of the substance and subjected to suitably modified X-rays; the pattern of diffracted rings is used for identification
radiographyskiagraphy – the process of making a radiograph; producing an image on a radiosensitive surface by radiation other than visible light
scanning – the process of translating photographs into a digital form that can be recognized by a computer
video digitizing – the process of capturing and converting and storing video images for use by a computer
develop – make visible by means of chemical solutions; “Please develop this roll of film for me”
underdevelop – process (a film or photographic plate) less than the required time or in an ineffective solution or at an insufficiently high temperature; “These photos are underdeveloped”
redevelop – develop for a second time, in order to improve the contrast, colour, etc., of a negative or print

3.photography – the occupation of taking and printing photographs or making movies

jobline of workoccupationbusinessline – the principal activity in your life that you do to earn money; “he’s not in my line of business”
photographypicture taking – the act of taking and printing photographs
intensify – make the chemically affected part of (a negative) denser or more opaque in order produce a stronger contrast between light and dark


Video technology was first developed for cathode ray tube (CRT) television systems, but several new technologies for video display devices have since been invented. Charles Ginsburg led an Ampex research team developing the first practical video tape recorder (VTR). In 1951 the first video tape recorder captured live images from television cameras by converting the camera’s electrical impulses and saving the information onto magnetic video tape. This tape was sold for around $50,000 in 1956. Sony began selling videocassette recorder (VCR) tapes to the public in 1971. Later advances in computer technology have allowed computers to capture, store, edit and transmit video clips. After the invention of the DVD in 1997 and Blu-ray Disc in 2006, sales of video tape and tape equipment plummeted.

[edit]Description of video

Analog video standards worldwide

   PAL or switching to PAL
   No information

The term video (“video” meaning “I see”, from the Latin verb “videre”) commonly refers to several storage formats for moving pictures: digital video formats, including Blu-ray DiscDVDQuickTime (QT), and MPEG-4; andanalog videotapes, including VHS and Betamax. Video can be recorded and transmitted in various physical media: in magnetic tape when recorded as PAL or NTSC electric signals by video cameras, or in MPEG-4 or DVdigital media when recorded by digital camerasQuality of video essentially depends on the capturing method and storage used. Digital television (DTV) is a relatively recent format with higher quality than earlier television formats and has become a standard for television video. (See List of digital television deployments by country.)

3D-video, digital video in three dimensions, premiered at the end of 20th century. Six or eight cameras with realtime depth measurement are typically used to capture 3D-video streams. The format of 3D-video is fixed inMPEG-4 Part 16 Animation Framework eXtension (AFX).

In many countries, the term video is often used informally to refer to both Videocassette recorders and video cassettes; the meaning is normally clear from the context.

[edit]Characteristics of video streams

[edit]Number of frames per second

Frame rate, the number of still pictures per unit of time of video, ranges from six or eight frames per second (frame/s) for old mechanical cameras to 120 or more frames per second for new professional cameras. PAL (Europe, Asia, Australia, etc.) and SECAM (France, Russia, parts of Africa etc.) standards specify 25 frame/s, while NTSC (USA, Canada, Japan, etc.) specifies 29.97 frame/s. Film is shot at the slower frame rate of 24photograms/s, which complicates slightly the process of transferring a cinematic motion picture to video. The minimum frame rate to achieve the illusion of a moving image is about fifteen frames per second.


Video can be interlaced or progressive. Interlacing was invented as a way to achieve good visual quality within the limitations of a narrow bandwidth. The horizontal scan lines of each interlaced frame are numbered consecutively and partitioned into two fields: the odd field (upper field) consisting of the odd-numbered lines and the even field (lower field) consisting of the even-numbered lines. NTSC, PAL and SECAM are interlaced formats. Abbreviated video resolution specifications often include an i to indicate interlacing. For example, PAL video format is often specified as 576i50, where 576 indicates the vertical line resolution, i indicates interlacing, and 50 indicates 50 fields (half-frames) per second.

In progressive scan systems, each refresh period updates all of the scan lines. The result is a higher spatial resolution and a lack of various artifacts that can make parts of a stationary picture appear to be moving or flashing.

A procedure known as deinterlacing can be used for converting an interlaced stream, such as analog, DVD, or satellite, to be processed by progressive scan devices, such as Liquid crystal display television TFT LCD Television sets, projectors, and plasma panels. Deinterlacing cannot, however, produce a video quality that is equivalent to true progressive scan source material.

[edit]Display resolution

Main article: Display resolution

The size of a video image is measured in pixels for digital video, or horizontal scan lines and vertical lines of resolution for analog video. In the digital domain (e.g. DVD) standard-definition television (SDTV) is specified as720/704/640×480i60 for NTSC and 768/720×576i50 for PAL or SECAM resolution. However in the analog domain, the number of visible scanlines remains constant (486 NTSC/576 PAL) while the horizontal measurement varies with the quality of the signal: approximately 320 pixels per scanline for VCR quality, 400 pixels for TV broadcasts, and 720 pixels for DVD sources. Aspect ratio is preserved because of non-square “pixels”.

New high-definition televisions (HDTV) are capable of resolutions up to 1920×1080p60, i.e. 1920 pixels per scan line by 1080 scan lines, progressive, at 60 frames per second.

Video resolution for 3D-video is measured in voxels (volume picture element, representing a value in three dimensional space). For example 512×512×512 voxels resolution, now used for simple 3D-video, can be displayed even on somePDAs.

[edit]Aspect ratio

Comparison of common cinematography and traditional television (green) aspect ratios

Aspect ratio describes the dimensions of video screens and video picture elements. All popular video formats are rectilinear, and so can be described by a ratio between width and height. The screen aspect ratio of a traditional television screen is 4:3, or about 1.33:1. High definition televisions use an aspect ratio of 16:9, or about 1.78:1. The aspect ratio of a full 35 mm film frame with soundtrack (also known as the Academy ratio) is 1.375:1.

Ratios where the height is taller than the width are uncommon in general everyday use, but do have application in computer systems where the screen may be better suited for a vertical layout. The most common tall aspect ratio of 3:4 is referred to as portrait mode and is created by physically rotating the display device 90 degrees from the normal position. Other tall aspect ratios such as 9:16 are technically possible but rarely used. (For a more detailed discussion of this topic please refer to the page orientation article.)

Pixels on computer monitors are usually square, but pixels used in digital video often have non-square aspect ratios, such as those used in the PAL and NTSC variants of the CCIR 601 digital video standard, and the corresponding anamorphic widescreen formats. Therefore, an NTSC DV image which is 720 pixels by 480 pixels is displayed with the aspect ratio of 4:3 (which is the traditional television standard) if the pixels are thin and displayed with the aspect ratio of 16:9 (which is the anamorphic widescreen format) if the pixels are fat.

[edit]Color space and bits per pixel

Example of U-V color plane, Y value=0.5

Color model name describes the video color representation. YIQ was used in NTSC television. It corresponds closely to the YUV scheme used in NTSC and PAL television and the YDbDr scheme used by SECAM television.

The number of distinct colors that can be represented by a pixel depends on the number of bits per pixel (bpp). A common way to reduce the number of bits per pixel in digital video is by chroma subsampling (e.g. 4:4:44:2:2,4:2:0/4:1:1).

[edit]Video quality

Video quality can be measured with formal metrics like PSNR or with subjective video quality using expert observation.

The subjective video quality of a video processing system may be evaluated as follows:

  • Choose the video sequences (the SRC) to use for testing.
  • Choose the settings of the system to evaluate (the HRC).
  • Choose a test method for how to present video sequences to experts and to collect their ratings.
  • Invite a sufficient number of experts, preferably not fewer than 15.
  • Carry out testing.
  • Calculate the average marks for each HRC based on the experts’ ratings.

Many subjective video quality methods are described in the ITU-T recommendation BT.500. One of the standardized method is the Double Stimulus Impairment Scale (DSIS). In DSIS, each expert views an unimpaired reference video followed by an impaired version of the same video. The expert then rates the impaired video using a scale ranging from “impairments are imperceptible” to “impairments are very annoying”.

[edit]Video compression method (digital only)

Main article: Video compression

A wide variety of methods are used to compress video streams. Video data contains spatial and temporal redundancy, making uncompressed video streams extremely inefficient. Broadly speaking, spatial redundancy is reduced by registering differences between parts of a single frame; this task is known as intraframe compression and is closely related to image compression. Likewise, temporal redundancy can be reduced by registering differences between frames; this task is known as interframe compression, including motion compensation and other techniques. The most common modern standards are MPEG-2, used for DVDBlu-ray and satellite television, and MPEG-4, used for AVCHD, Mobile phones (3GP) and Internet.

[edit]Bit rate (digital only)

Bit rate is a measure of the rate of information content in a video stream. It is quantified using the bit per second (bit/s or bps) unit or Megabits per second (Mbit/s). A higher bit rate allows better video quality. For example VideoCD, with a bit rate of about 1 Mbit/s, is lower quality than DVD, with maximum bit rate of 10.08 Mbit/s for video. HD (High Definition Digital Video and TV) has a still higher quality, with a bit rate of about 20 Mbit/s.

Variable bit rate (VBR) is a strategy to maximize the visual video quality and minimize the bit rate. On fast motion scenes, a variable bit rate uses more bits than it does on slow motion scenes of similar duration yet achieves a consistent visual quality. For real-time and non-buffered video streaming when the available bandwidth is fixed, e.g. in videoconferencing delivered on channels of fixed bandwidth, a constant bit rate (CBR) must be used.


Stereoscopic video can be created using several different methods:

  • two channels — a right channel for the right eye and a left channel for the left eye. Both channels may be viewed simultaneously by using light-polarizing filters 90 degrees off-axis from each other on two video projectors. These separately polarized channels are viewed wearing eyeglasses with matching polarization filters.
  • one channel with two overlaid color coded layers. This left and right layer technique is occasionally used for network broadcast, or recent “anaglyph” releases of 3D movies on DVD. Simple Red/Cyan plastic glasses provide the means to view the images discretely to form a stereoscopic view of the content.
  • One channel with alternating left/right frames for each eye, using LCD shutter glasses which read the frame sync from the VGA Display Data Channel to alternately cover each eye, so the appropriate eye sees the correct frame. This method is most common in computer virtual reality applications such as in a Cave Automatic Virtual Environment, but reduces the effective video framerate to one-half of normal (for example, from 120 Hz to 60 Hz).

Blu-ray Discs greatly improve the sharpness and detail of the two-color 3D effect in color coded stereo programs. See articles Stereoscopy and 3-D film.

[edit]Video formats

There are different layers of video transmission and storage, each with its own set of formats to choose from.

For transmission, there is a physical connector and signal protocol (“video connection standard” below). A given physical link can carry certain “display standards” which specify a particular refresh rate, display resolution, and color space.

Many analog and digital recording formats are in use, and digital video clips can also be stored on a computer file system as files which have their own formats. In addition to the physical format used by the data storage device or transmission medium, the stream of ones and zeros that is sent must be in a particular digital “video encoding“, of which a number are available.

[edit]Video connectors, cables, and signal standards

[edit]Video display standards

Further information: Display technology

[edit]Digital television

Further information: Broadcast television systems

New formats for digital television broadcasts use the MPEG-2 video codec and include:

[edit]Analog television

Further information: Broadcast television systems

Analog television broadcast standards include:

An analog video format consists of more information than the visible content of the frame. Preceding and following the image are lines and pixels containing synchronization information or a time delay. This surrounding margin is known as a blanking interval or blanking region; the horizontal and vertical front porch and back porch are the building blocks of the blanking interval.

Many countries are planning a digital switchover soon.

[edit]Computer displays

See Computer display standard for a list of standards used for computer monitors and comparison with those used for television.

[edit]Recording formats before video tape

[edit]Analog tape formats

(See List of video recording formats.)

[edit]Digital tape formats

[edit]Optical disc storage formats


[edit]Digital encoding formats


[show]v · d · eVideo storage formats

[edit]Display devices

Display devices for showing videos are generally full-area (rather than segmented display), sometimes simply called video displays.

[edit]See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Video

Animation Defination

Animation” discovered from the Latin name anima, the “animating principle”

Animation is the rapid display of a sequence of images of 2-D or 3-D artwork or model positions in order to create an illusion of movement. The effect is an optical illusion of motion due to the phenomenon of persistence of vision, and can be created and demonstrated in several ways. Another French artist, Émile Cohl, began drawing cartoon strips and created a film in 1908 called Fantasmagorie. The film largely consisted of a stick figure moving about and encountering all manner of morphing objects, such as a wine bottle that transforms into a flower. There were also sections of live action where the animator’s hands would enter the scene. The film was created by drawing each frame on paper and then shooting each frame onto negative film, which gave the picture a blackboard look. This makes Fantasmagorie the first animated film created using what came to be known as traditional (hand-drawn) animation.

Following the successes of Blackton and Cohl, many other artists began experimenting with animation. One such artist was Winsor McCay, a successful newspaper cartoonist, who created detailed animations that required a team of artists and painstaking attention for detail. Each frame was drawn on paper; which invariably required backgrounds and characters to be redrawn and animated. Among McCay’s most noted films are Little Nemo (1911), Gertie the Dinosaur (1914) and The Sinking of the Lusitania (1918).

The production of animated short films, typically referred to as “cartoons”, became an industry of its own during the 1910s, and cartoon shorts were produced to be shown in movie theaters. The most successful early animation producer was John Randolph Bray, who, along with animator Earl Hurd, patented the cel animation process which dominated the animation industry for the rest of the decade.

El Apóstol (Spanish: “The Apostle”) was a 1917 Argentine animated film utilizing cutout animation, and the world’s first animated feature .J. Stuart Blackton was possibly the first American film-maker to use the techniques of stop-motion and hand-drawn animation. Introduced to film-making by Edison, he pioneered these concepts at the turn of the 20th century, with his first copyrighted work dated 1900. Several of his films, among them The Enchanted Drawing (1900) and Humorous Phases of Funny Faces (1906) were film versions of Blackton’s “lightning artist” routine, and utilized modified versions of Méliès’ early stop-motion techniques to make a series of blackboard drawings appear to move and reshape themselves. ‘Humorous Phases of Funny Faces’ is regularly cited as the first true animated film, and Blackton is considered the first true animator..





Realization of a concept or idea into a configuration,drawingmodel, mould, patternplan or specification (on which the actual or commercial production of an item is based) and which helps achieve the item’s designated objective(s).
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What are your weaknesses?You may know how to design a widget, but not know a thing about running an efficient manufacturing plant. Apple designs and markets its nifty iPods and iPhones, but lets someone else slap them togethe … Read more

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Design is a creative activity whose aim is to establish the multi-faceted qualities of objects, processes, services and their systems in whole life cycles. Therefore, design is the central factor of innovative humanisation of technologies and the crucial factor of cultural and economic exchange.


Design seeks to discover and assess structural, organisational, functional, expressive and economic relationships, with the task of:

  • Enhancing global sustainability and environmental protection (global ethics)
  • Giving benefits and freedom to the entire human community, individual and collective
  • Final users, producers and market protagonists (social ethics)
  • Supporting cultural diversity despite the globalisation of the world (cultural ethics)
  • Giving products, services and systems, those forms that are expressive of (semiology) and coherent with (aesthetics) their proper complexity
Design concerns products, services and systems conceived with tools, organisations and logic introduced by industrialisation – not just when produced by serial processes. The adjective “industrial” put to design must be related to the term industry or in its meaning of sector of production or in its ancient meaning of “industrious activity”. Thus, design is an activity involving a wide spectrum of professions in which products, services, graphics, interiors and architecture all take part. Together, these activities should further enhance – in a choral way with other related professions – the value of life.Therefore, the term designer refers to an individual who practices an intellectual profession, and not simply a trade or a service for enterprises.
  1. Definition of MagazineMagazine

    A receptacle in which anything is stored, especially military stores, as ammunition, arms, provisions, etc.

    The building or room in which the supply of powder is kept in a fortification or a ship.

    A chamber in a gun for holding a number of cartridges to be fed automatically to the piece.

    A pamphlet published periodically containing miscellaneous papers or compositions.

    To store in, or as in, a magazine; to store up for use.

    A country or district especially rich in natural products.

    A city viewed as a marketing center.

    A reservoir or supply chamber for a stove, battery, camera, typesetting machine, or other apparatus.

    A store, or shop, where goods are kept for sale.

    Read more:http://www.brainyquote.com/words/ma/magazine187051.html#ixzz1dMMOT4ms


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